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Socotra’s fauna is fascinating, with the island being home to 225 species of birds, 6 of which are endemic (Socotra sparrow, Socotra Cisticola, Socotra Starling, Socotra Sunbird, Socotra Warbler and the rarest Socotra Bunting).

It is also a host point for many migrating and breeding birds of over 45 species such as Flamingos, Cattle Egrets, Reef Herons, Gulls.

A very visible part of the bird population is the Egyptian Vultures, with Socotra having the highest globally recorded density.
There are 190 species of butterfly and 600 species of insects both with high proportion of endemics (approx 90%).
The reptilian fauna is also very rich with 19 out of a total of 22 species regarded as endemics.

Domestic goats, sheep, cows and camels are common across the island. Bats are the only mammals native to the island, with a lucky few being able to spot the elusive Civet cats that stalk the island looking for prey.

Socotra’s marine world has a mixture of species from different biogeographical regions (Western Indian Ocean, Red Sea, East Africa and the wider Indo-Pacific). Despite being a small archipelago, Socotra island is home to more than 730 species of coastal fishes, 230 species of hard corals (five are endemics) and 30 species of soft corals. In addition to 300 species of crustacean (nine are endemics), 490 species of mollusks, and 230 species of algae. Sea-turtles nest on the north of the island and an endemic fresh-water crab, Potamon socotrensis, is common in water streams.

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